In Jewish law, zmanim, which means "times," refers to particular daily hours. A calendar day is established in Jewish law as beginning at "night" and ending at "night," predicated on the repeated statement "... and there was night, and there was daylight..." in the Genesis story of creation, with night coming before dawn. Zmanim Jerusalem in simple terms is the 'time of Jerusalem.'
Jewish law mandates that some actions be carried out "all through the day"—or at a specific time throughout the day—and that other tasks be carried out "at night"—or at one particular time during the evening. The significance of the twilight hours shortly after dusk or just before sunrise is unclear for either function. Judaism offers its criteria for this particular era.
Calculations of such zmanim are frequently given in the Talmud in the length of time it needs to traverse a particular route, expressed in mils. Although there are differing perspectives, most authorities estimate it takes 18 minutes to walk one mile. According to many sources, such calculations are precise.
For instance, if dusk occurs precisely "72 minutes following sundown" in all locations on all dates, darkness occurs "the length of time it takes to travel four mils" after sundown. Other specialists have highlighted that the blackness of the sky 72 minutes after dusk may differ wildly from area to area and day, particularly for those who reside in higher latitudes.
They contend that "72 minutes after dusk" refers specifically to how black the sky appears in Jerusalem at an equinox 72 minutes after sundown. That blackness is considered to have occurred whenever the sun had lowered specific degrees underneath the horizon. That measurement will become the accepted standard for all locations and periods.
In the night, one chronological day finishes while the next starts. Per Talmud, it is a question regarding whether the day ends at sundown or the beginning of darkness. Hence the period between has a state of ambiguity. There are four Biblical miles from dusk and nightfall, according to the Pesachim section of the Talmud. But per Tractate Shabbat of the Talmud, there seem to be three-quarters of a mil from sundown and nighttime start.
- According to the Geonim and the Vilna Gaon, the second quote is the proper halachic period, while the first statement—which has little halachic significance—is when all the stars are seen.
- There seem to be two "sunsets," one of which, the real sundown, is four mil before darkness, and the other of which occurs three-quarters of a mil earlier, according to Rabbeinu Tam and numerous other Rishonim.
The first perspective states that nightfall occurs 1312–18 minutes after sunset. The second perspective is that darkness typically happens 90 minutes after sunset. The Talmudic commandment quoted above speaks of the sight of "medium stars."
The Shulchan Aruch, nevertheless, states that we need to be strict to allow for the emergence of types of stars because we are unaware of the medium or enormous constellations. Because this period is not correctly defined, most towns wait around the 8.5° solar dip.
There seem to be two times throughout the day to start mitzvot:
- early morning, when sunlight is apparent, or
- sunrise, the time whenever the sun's sphere emerges over the horizon.
The Mishnah mentions several daily obligations that one should accomplish after sunrise. The time from daybreak and sunrise also marks the period during which one can stroll four miles, according to the Pesachim Talmud. Daybreak typically occurs 72 or 90 minutes before sunrise, or when the sunlight is 16.1° underneath the horizon, for morning computations.
The earliest moment to wear tzitzit and, concurrently, tefillin is after sunrise, which is called misheyakir, "when one can identify," since it is at this moment that you can identify the blue string of the tzitzit from the white threads. Since no Talmudic or earlier texts specify when this period occurs, various interpretations of how misheyakir are often computed concerning season and location. Most base their calculations on the time the sun is 10.2-11.5 degrees underneath the horizon. However, some claim it can be as later as 6 degrees.
Every day is split over twelve identical "hours" for practically all halakhic reasons. There seem to be two leading schools of thought:
- According to Magen Avraham, one measures the day from daybreak to dusk and splits it into twelve equal portions since one could engage in "daytime" tasks during these times. Nightfall is typically calculated as 72 minutes after sundown and daybreak as 72 minutes preceding sunrise, or more precisely, as the sunlight is 16.1 degrees underneath the horizon, in the case of Jerusalem at the equinox 72 minutes before sunrise. Jerusalem residents typically calculate it using 20 degrees, in any case.
- Even though "daytime" operations may begin as sooner as daybreak and finish as late as dusk, according to the Vilna Gaon, their appropriate time lechatchila may be from sunrise to sunset. Therefore, one counts the day from morning until sunset and splits that duration into twelve parts.
In actuality, some groups adhere to every one of those criteria. Therefore, "Magen Avraham times" are sooner in the morning than "Vilna Gaon moments." The Vilna Gaon's hours are early for an afternoon and are primarily adhered to.
As the time from dawn and sunset varies throughout the year, hours are referred to as "seasonal" or "variable" hours. According to the Vilna Gaon's estimations, a "seasonal hour" nearby New York, for instance, will last approximately 45 minutes near the winter solstice, 60 minutes around the equinoxes, and 75 minutes around the summer solstice.
Zmanim Jerusalem means time Jews have their calculation of the period of the day. Knowing more about this is essential Jews give importance to their time every day just like any other person worldwide. Learning about every country's time and how they calculate it is also important. What we have covered are just a few of the explanations about Jerusalem’s Zmanim.
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